Web Design Glossary

-A-

Accessibility

The industry practices to allowing web pages on the Internet as universally accessible as possible to all users, not discriminating by web browser used, and especially nor by users physical disabilities. For example, visually impaired users whom browsing websites using screen reader may have problem with pure graphical navigation without image’s alternative text, then deaf people may have difficulty fully understanding pages with audio components only.

ADSL

Abbreviation for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, where the upload speed is different from the download speed. Usually the download speed is much greater.

AJAX

Abbreviation for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. A way of including content in a web page in which javascript code in the web page fetches some data from a server and displays it without re-fetching the entire page at the same time, hence the term ‘Asynchronous’. The data fetched often in XML format. An example of AJAX application would be a stock or currency exchange box in the middle of a web page. Ajax could be used to populate the box every 5 minutes without needing to refresh the entire page.

-B-

Back / Forward (< / >)

Two main buttons very common in web browser. Button Back or Return (<-) brings us back to the document we just visited earlier, while button Forward or Next (->) brings us forth to the next document we had opened, before we went back (so -> button doesn’t available if we haven’t gone
back).

Backbone

high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network. The term is relative as a backbone in a small network will likely be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network.

Bandwidth

Data size can be sent through a connection within a given time, usually measured in bits-per-second (bps.) A full page of English text is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 57,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen video would require roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression (codec) used.

Blog

Abbreviation for weB LOG, basically is an online journal / dairy, whose owner write often in chronological manner. The activity of updating a blog is “blogging” and someone who keeps a blog is a “blogger.” Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog.

Bookmark

A common term in Netscape Navigator browser, refers to a special place to store our favorite links or URL, therefore allow us to go rightaway to any particular web address we had stored inside it. It’s referred as Favorites in Microsoft Internet Explorer web browser.

Browser

Often referred as Web Browser to be more accurate, which is a software functions to open and browse web pages in WWW.

A web browser displays and renders web pages based on the HTML code they contain inside.

Modern and popular web browser these days among others are latest released version of Microsoft Internet Explorer, Firefox, Opera, Netscape, Safari (for Mac) etc..

Utilizing today’s modern browser usually better serve to render and display the web pages we’re viewing at correctly as designed by their designers.

-C-

Cache

A temporary storage of web pages we visited with most of their components inside, including the HTML codes, pictures, buttons, styles, etc. so that may expedite the re-opening of those components & pages, should we decide to return, without waiting for the same data to be delivered via the Internet by the web server.

Cookies

A small file useful to make a website ‘remember’ the last conditions when the last time a particular browser visit that website. So that, for instance, a visitor doesn’t have to login everytime returning to his favorite
website, also, at every page he visits, the website remember his settings & preferences.

Cookies can not access data that is never given explicitly by visitors, nor, can it makes you get into a mailing list automatically if you never surrender your email address..

CSS

Abbreviation of Cascading Style Sheet, a standardized way that efficiently defines styles & formats to appear on web pages, including type & size of fonts, paragraph appearance, form appearance, etc. All current version of browsers are capable of displaying CSS.

-D-

Domain Name

Names, consist of characters or digits, used to alias a server in the Internet, so that it’s easier for human to remember and pronounce, especially compared to its original identity, which using IP address that merely
a combination of digits that is hardly remembers by human. Distrubuted DNS servers then translate where or which machine on the Internet a specific domain name is pointed to.

Domain Name Extensions

Or Top Level Domains is the extension follows a domain name that could suggest the type or category of a particular web site.

For instances, the following domain name extensions or more popular named as Top Level Domains (TLDs): .com (commercial), .net (networks), .org (organization), .biz (business), .info (information), .aero (air-transport industry), .asia (Asia-Pacific region), .coop (cooperatives), .int (international), .jobs (companies’ specific jobs wesite), .mobi (mobile devices), .pro (professions), .tel (Internet communication services), .xxx (adult entertainment), .travel (travel & tourism industry) .edu (education U.S.), .co.id (commercial country Indonesia), .ac.id (academic country Indonesia), .com.sg (commercial country Singapore), .net.au (network country Australia), .go.id (governmental country Indonesia), etc.

DSL

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is a popular alternative to Leased Lines and ISDN for Internet connection, being faster than ISDN and less costly than traditional Leased Lines.

A DSL circuit is much faster than a regular phone connection, and the wires coming into the subscriber’s premises are the same (copper) wires used for regular phone service. A DSL circuit must be configured to connect two specific locations, similar to a leased line (howeverr a DSL circuit is not a leased line.

A common configuration of DSL allows downloads at speeds of up to 1.544 megabits (not megabytes) per second, and uploads at speeds of 128 kilobits per second. This arrangement is called ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.
Another common configuration is symmetrical: 384 Kilobits per second in both directions.
In theory ADSL allows download speeds of up to 9 megabits per second and upload speeds of up to 640 kilobits per second.

-E-

Email

Short for Electronic mail, which is mail sent accross the Internet medium, so that it can deliver messages inside it to all over the world fast & cheap. Email may carry files, so called appropriately enough, attachments. Email address is unique in the Internet world.

EVDO

Stands for Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data Only is a telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals for broadband Internet access through CDMA cellular networks. EVDO was designed as an evolution of the CDMA2000 (IS-2000) standard that would support high data rates and could be deployed alongside a wireless carrier’s voice services.

-F-

Favorites

A common term in Microsoft Internet Explorer browser, refers to a special place to store our favorite links or URL, therefore allow us to go rightaway to any particular web address we had stored inside it. It’s referred as Bookmark in Netscape Navigator web browser.

Firewall

A combination of hardware and software that separates a Network into two or more parts for security purposes.

Forward

FTP

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is the common protocol of moving files between two Internet sites. FTP is a way to login to another Internet site for the purposes of retrieving and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites that have established publicly accessible repositories of material that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the account name “anonymous”, thus these sites are called “anonymous ftp servers”.

-G-

GIF

GIF (Graphic Interchange Format) is one of the common graphic format for image files, especially suitable for images containing large areas of the same color. GIF format files of simple images are often smaller than the same file would be if stored in JPEG format, but GIF format does not store photographic images as well as JPEG.

-H-

HTML

Short for Hyper Text Markup Language, a standard computer language code to control the appearance and arrangement of a web page that contains it.

The final appearance of a web page that displayed by a web browser is the result of processing and rendering of the HTML source code of that web page.

HTML 5

The upcoming standard in web pages proceeding the XHTML 1.0 and HTML 4.01 standards to mainly improve the language with native support for the latest multimedia (video, audio, animation, interaction) while still keeping it easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices (web browsers, parsers, etc.).

Web Pages

Group of data and information that is composed into one page that is displayable by web browser inWWW

-I-

IMAP

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) is gradually replacing POP as the main protocol used by email clients in communicating with email servers. Using IMAP an email client program can not only retrieve email but can also manipulate message stored on the server, without having to actually retrieve the messages. So messages can be deleted, have their status changed, multiple mail boxes can be managed, etc.

IP Address

Short for Internet Protocol Address, which is a unique combination of 4 digits, each can be from 0-255, each is separated by period (dot), overall represents the Internet address of a unique computer connected to the Internet.

Examples: 202.150.24.3, 64.112.212.45

ISP

Short for Internet Service Provider, which is, a company that provide Internet connection services to the public. For instance: Centrin, Indosat & Indonet in Indonesia, or AOL, Road-Runner, etc in USA.

-K-

Keywords

The key words or phrases that used to do searches of web pages or files in the Internet.

Keywords are keyed in to the search boxes on search engines to get the latter list their search results.

-J-

JavaScript

A client-side programming language that is mostly used in web pages, usually to add features that make the web page more interactive. When JavaScript is included in an HTML file it relies upon the browser to interpret the JavaScript. When JavaScript is combined with Cascading Style Sheets(CSS), and later versions of HTML (4.0 and later) the result is often called DHTML.

JPEG

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is a common graphic format for image files. JPEG format is a compressed graphic data that is often preferred to the GIF format for photographic images as opposed to line art or simple logo art.

-L-

Link

URL or web addresses of other documents that is inserted in web pages. It is click-able with a mouse, for us to be taken directly to that particular web address it points to.

-M-

Mouse

A common computer accessory, that looks like a mouse with its cable as the mouse’s tail, used to click a link, push a button, select a menu.

Mouse is like our index finger that gets inside the computer’s monitor.

-N-

Netter

The Internet users in general, users of any of the Internet applications.

-O-

Outlook Express

A popular email client program from Microsoft usually bundled for free with Windows operating system.

-P-

Permalink

Permanent-link to a particular posting in a blog. A permalink is a URI that points to a specific blog posting, rather than to the page in which the posting original occured which may no longer contain the posting.

Podcasting

A form of audio broadcasting using the Internet, podcasting takes its name from a combination of “iPod” and broadcasting. iPod is the immensely popular digital audio player by Apple computer, but podcasting does not actually require the use of an iPod.
Podcasting involves making one or more audio files available as “enclosures” in an RSS feed.

A pod-caster creates a list of music, and/or other sound files (such as recorded poetry, or “talk radio” material) and makes that list available in the RSS 2.0 format. The list can then be obtained by other people using various podcast “retriever” software which read the feed and makes the audio files available to digital audio devices (including, but not limited to iPods) where users may then listen to them at their convenience.

PDF

PDF (Portable Document Format) is the standard in distributing digital document where it allows printing and viewing of digital documents with all their formatting (typefaces, images, layout, etc.) appearing the same regardless of what operating system is used. The PDF format is based on the widely used Postcript document-description language. Both PDF and Postscript were developed by Adobe.

Phishing

The act of sending email that falsely claims to be from a legitimate organization, usually combined with a threat or request for information, for instance that an account to be closed, an account requires verification, a balance is due, or information is missing from an account. The main target is to maliciously steal the submitter’s account credentials.

-R-

RDF

RDF (Resource Definition Framework) is a set of rules (a sort of language) for creating descriptions of information, especially information available on the World Wide Web. RDF could be used to describe a collection of books, or artists, or a collection of web pages as in the RSS data format which uses RDF to create machine-readable summaries of web sites.

RDF is also used in XPFE applications to define the relationships between different collections of elements, for example RDF could be used to define the relationship between the data in a database and the way that data is displayed to a user.

RSS

RSS (Rich Site Summary or RDF Site Summary or Real Simple Syndication) is commonly used protocol for syndication and sharing of content, originally developed to facilitate the syndication of news articles, now widely used to share the contents of blogs.

RSS is an XML-based summary of a web site, usually used for syndication and other kinds of content-sharing. There are RSS “feeds” which are sources of RSS information about web sites, and RSS “readers” which read RSS feeds and display their content to users.

There’s other newer format named Atom with further improvements to RSS.

-S-

Scroll

Scroll (Up, Down, Left atau Right) is a common term which simply mean moving up, down left or right within a displayed web page.

Spam

An unethical act to unsolicitly sending mass same message to a large number of people who didn’t ask for it usually for commercial reason. The term probably comes from its nature as a generic content-free waste of resources.

Your email address can receive tens to hundreds of spam daily mostly because of the following:

  • adding your email address to a newsletter subscription to a low ethical website,
  • your email address included in a mailing list where everyone can see (& add to spam database) others’ email addresses,
  • the email address listed unprotected (by a sort of Javascript, bitmap image, etc) on some web pages where in turn some spam bots (spam crawler) may identify & add it to its database.

Search Engine

Indexing machine (computers) in search for information, usually in web pages, in Internet. Data and information gathered are indexed and stored in a manageable fashion as to enable web surfers to search for information they want.

Scripts that explore (spider) websites in the Internet, where the resulting data stored in databases so that it is searchable by web surfers in need of a direction to a particular information.

Spyware

A somewhat vague term generally referring to software that is secretly installed on a users computer and that monitors use of the computer in some way without the users’ knowledge or consent.

Most spyware tries to get the user to view advertising and/or particular web pages. Some spyware also sends information about the user to another machine over the Internet.

Spyware is usually installed without a users’ knowledge as part of the installation of other software, especially software such as music sharing software obtained via download.

SQL

SQL (Structured Query Language) is a specialized language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific application will have its own slightly different version of SQL implementing features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL.

-U-

Usability

In the web world defind as set of layout, structure, arrangements, typography & many other properties that makes website simple & easy to use. It’s a term used to denote the ease with which visitors can employ a particular website in order to achieve their particular goal. For example, inconsistent web layout structure & navigation may let visitors strayed and confused as to where their location on website or where to go, due to poor usability practice, users find a hard way to find a piece of information needed on a website, graphics-intensive pages may hinder good access for those without high-speed internet connections, etc.

URI

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), equivalent to URL, please see definition below.

URL

Short for Uniform Resource Locator, which is the absolute, full and unique web address or other objects on the Internet, it is also currently known as Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). For an instance, http://www.sitename.com/directory-name/page-name.html, which is a unique web page served at web site www.sitename.com.

-W-

W3C

Stand for World Wide Web Consortium, W3C is the governing body for web standards, seeks to promote standards for the evolution of the Web and interoperability between WWW products by producing specifications and reference software.

W3C was created to ensure compatibility and agreement among industry members in the adoption of web site standards. Prior to its creation, incompatible versions of HTML were offered by different web browser vendors, increasing the potential for inconsistency between web pages. The consortium was created to get all those vendors to agree on a set of core principles and components which would be the industry standard supported by everyone.

W3C develops specifications, guidelines, software, and tools to lead the Web to its full potential as a forum for information, commerce, communication, and collective understanding.

The W3C was founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee, the original architect of the World Wide Web.

Web Browser

An application software to open and browse web pages in WWW, a web browser displays and renders web pages based on the (X)HTML code contained inside them.

Modern and popular web browser these days among others are latest released version of Microsoft Internet Explorer, Firefox, Opera, Mozilla, Safari (for Mac) etc..

Utilizing today’s modern web browser better serve to render and display the web pages we’re viewing at correctly as proposed by W3C & coded by the designer.

Web Server

A computer server on the Internet that serve request for web pages from web browsers.

Browser communicates intensely with a web server to gather data of a particular web page that is located inside that web server.

Web Surfer

People those explore the WWW world using web browser in order to seek or browse for information.

Website

Home page of a company, organization or entity on the Internet. Websites term is interchangeable with W.W.W. (World Wide Web) site and its web address begins with http:// in its full complete address.

Web sites are globally accessible, that means from anywhere as long as there’s Internet connection, in practically anytime. A web site’s address is unique in the Internet world.

WWW

Short for World Wide Web, which is the Internet application we know as home page or web site. WWW application requires web browsers to browse (which activity often dubbed as surfing) its contents (web pages on web sites).

WYSIWYG

Short for What You See Is What You Get, a feature in most modern word processor editor that allow for live preview of resulting document format (typography, font size, color, layout, etc) as you type.

-X-

XHTML

Abbreviation for eXtensible HyperText Markup Language a reformulation of HTML 4.01 in XML, and combines the strength of HTML 4 with the power of XML.

If HTML is the lingua franca for publishing hypertext on the World Wide Web, then XHTML is simply the latest version of HTML published as W3C Recommendations.

XHTML 1.0 was the first major change to HTML since 1997 and a very important step on the way to create a standard that will provide richer web pages on a wider range of web browsers, like desktop PCs, mobile cellular (wireless) devices, PDAs, televisions, even cars, kiosks, etc..